AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF CAVE AND KARST CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT IN NEW ZEALAND: 1889 - 1985
This paper traces and reviews the historical development of cave and karst conservation and management in New Zealand. The involvement of the Department of Lands and Survey, the New Zealand Forest Service, the Tourist Hotel Corporation, and the New Zealand Speleological Society (Inc) in relation to the recreational use, conservation, management and development for tourism, of New Zealand's cave and karst resource is described. Conclusions are drawn, and recommendations for the protection of specific karst areas and caves; and possible future directions are made.
A brief Annotated Listing of Karst Features and Caves in National Parks, Reserves, State Forest Parks, Ecological Areas, and State Forests; the New Zealand Speleological Society's Policy for Cave and Karst Conservation, and Ethical Guidelines are included in the Appendices.
In general, government agencies, tourist organisations, the New Zealand Speleological Society, and individual recreational cavers have not always recognised the sensitive and unique nature of New Zealand's cave and karst resource; and have often compromised its integrity in ignorance, pursuit of profit, or personal achievement and pleasure.
There have, however, always been, amongst experienced recreational cavers and speleologists, concerned and environmentally aware individuals. It is largely as a result of the efforts of these committed individuals combined with the development of greater general environmental awareness, that the New Zealand Speleological Society and other organisations such as the Tourist Hotel Corporation and government departments have recognised the need to conserve, and appropriately manage our cave and karst resource.
Other pressures such as increased recreational use, development for tourism, the activities of extractive industries such as logging and mining; the development of the Protected Natural Area system, requirements for the preparation of management plans under the Forest Act, National Parks Act, and Reserves Act; and the preparation of district schemes under the Town and Country Planning Act, have brought about the recent and relatively rapid formalised development towards a coordinated national strategy with recognised goals, objectives and policies.
This paper will attempt to trace and review the historical development which lead to the growth of awareness; the preparation of a systematic approach to the conservation of our cave and karst resource; and its recognition as a resource of national biological, physical, scientific, educational, scenic, recreational, and socio-economic importance.
It is proposed to present the review in chronological order with a brief description of some of the relevant events and consequent developments. It is intended that the review will provide the rationale; and, place into perspective, the need for a formalised and systematic approach to the conservation and management of New Zealand's cave and karst resources.
THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The Maori have occupied New Zealand for well over 1000 years,: but little is known of their association with caves. However, they were often used as burial sites, with rock shelters and overhangs used as resting places on journeys and during hunting forays. Some sites were decorated with drawings and paintings. The Maori often regarded caves as the abode of the dreaded taniwha (monsters) (Kermode, 1966) and therefore probably did not venture too far underground. The Waitomo Glowworm Cave stream was a popular eel gathering location for the Maori, and no doubt had been used as such for many generations.
Maniapoto's Cave, near Te Kuiti, is a cave of great importance in local Maori tradition. It is said to have been the dwelling place of Maniapoto, a principal ancestor of the tribe that assumed his name over 400 years ago (The Times 1972) (the cave was threatened by quarrying in the l960s, but is now a reserve).
The first written account in New Zealand of a visit to a cave is that of a moa bone collecting expedition in the Waitomo area by Dr A Roberts in 1849 (Kermode, 1966). However the most notable exploration of the 19th century was carried out by Fred Mace, a Government Surveyor, and Tane Tinorau, a local Maori Chief who explored the Waitomo Glowworm Cave in 1887. Much interest was aroused and they later guided many people through the cave.
In 1889 Thomas Humphreys, Chief Surveyor, Auckland, surveyed and photographed the Waitomo Glowworm Cave and prepared an official report to government. Ruakuri Cave entrance had been known to the Maori for some time and in 1900 James Holden explored the cave and began guiding people through. Aranui Cave was discovered in 1910.
Souveniring and vandalism soon became a serious problem and the area over the Glowworm Cave, and the forest above Ruakuri Cave, were declared scenic reserves under the new Scenery Preservation Act 1908. By 1910 the caves were firmly established on the tourist map and a chief guide was appointed. By 1926 electric lighting was installed in the Waitomo Glowworm Cave.
At this time the tourist caves were administered by the Tourist and Health Resorts Department. In 1955 the administration was transferred to the Tourist Hotel Corporation (THC, 1981).
There can be no doubt that many small caves were located and explored throughout New Zealand in the latter part of the 19th century and in the early years of the 20th century. Such a cave appears to have been Piripiri Caves, Waitomo discovered in 1902. The discoverers left evidence of their visit by scrawling their names on one of the stalactites near the entrance (Hobson 1976).
Between 1910 and 1945 many areas of New Zealand were set aside as scenic reserves under the Scenery Preservation Act 1908. Some of these included caves and karst features, principally on the West Coast of the South Island, and in the Takaka and Waitomo areas. In 1905 Fiordland had been set aside as a National Park this contained numerous caves and karst features including the Aurora - Te Ana-au cave system ('discovered' many years after the park was established - see below). It appears rather than reflecting a specific attempt at cave and karst preservation most of the caves and karst protected during this period were in areas unsuitable for farm and other development.
By the 1940s a more serious approach was taken to caving, and although individual cavers were active in many parts of New Zealand, they were not yet organised as a group. In 1947 Henry Lambert read 'Ten Years Under the Earth', and was so inspired that he commenced a long career of cave exploration. He was responsible for forming the New Zealand Speleological Society in 1949 (Anon, 1952).
During 1948-49 one Lawson Burrows 'discovered' (probably previously known to the Maori) the Te Ana-au Caves near Te Anau. He enlarged the small entrance, made catwalks, diverted streams, and installed two boats. Thus establishing New Zealand's second most significant cave tourism area (Anon, 1961).
Following the foundation of the New Zealand Speleological Society exploration and surveying progressed rapidly. By 1952 the first issue of the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin was published. This provided the first medium for the recording of caves and associated scientific discoveries; and also provided the means for a more coordinated approach to cave exploration. Early scientific work included the discovery of sub-fossil remains (primarily moa bones), studies of arthropods, surveying, and hydrological research (Anon, 1952).
During the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s many caves were discovered in the Waitomo area. These included Waipuna Cave (1956) and Hollow Hill Cave (1957). Gardners Gut Cave, discovered in the early part of the century, was extended by systematic exploration (now over 12km long). Many deep vertical systems were also explored in the South Island on Mount Owen and Mount Arthur, and in the Takaka Hill area (Wilde, 1980).
Sometimes reports of significant caves were passed on to the Department of Lands and Survey, and areas were specifically acquired to protect cave and karst features. An example of this is the Hollow Hill Scenic Reserve, Waitomo, which was acquired in 1960 and set aside in 1970 to protect Hollow Hill Cave, a cave of national significance, for possible tourist development; but under the current management policy the cave will remain undeveloped.
In 1928 the Public Reserves, Domains, and National Park Act was established and operated concurrently with the Scenery Preservation Act 1908. In 1953 the Reserves and Domains Act repealed the 1908 and 1928 Acts (see Appendix I for karst and caves in reserves).
In 1952 an act to provide specifically for national parks was passed (National Parks Act, 1952). This was the first significant Act of Parliament to provide for large protected natural areas. The Act defined its purpose as:
"Preserving in perpetuity as national parks, for the benefit and enjoyment of the public, areas of New Zealand that contain scenery of such distinctive quality or natural areas so beautiful or unique that their preservation is in the national interest."
(see Appendix I for karst and caves in national parks. NB: no karst and cave areas were set specifically aside under the National Parks Act until 1977)
Concurrent with these developments, and as early as 1955 cavers were becoming concerned about damage to caves, particularly the removal of speleothems (Anon, 1955a and 1956). Smoking of initials on cave walls and the discarding of rubbish such as flash bulbs and batteries also became a matter of concern (Anon, 1955b and 1957).
Unintentional and intentional vandalism by cavers continued to be of concern to the New Zealand Speleological Society and in 1964 an article occurred in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin (Campbell, 1964). The article expressed concern over thoughtless walking and climbing over formation and the removal of crystals in Puketiti Flower Cave, Waitomo (now protected under a conservation covenant).
Handling of speleothems with dirty hands also caused concern and resulted in several cleaning operations and restrictions on the behaviour of members and access to caves were considered. In the late 1960s barriers were erected by the New Zealand Speleological Society in Gardners Gut Cave to protect formation (Ash pers. comm.).
During 1965 the Forest Act 1949 was amended to provide for State Forest Parks. The Act defined their purpose to:
- "Set apart any area or areas of permanent State Forest land as a State Forest Park or part of a State Forest Park: and
- Set apart any area or areas of provisional state forest land as a forest park or part of a state forest park."
The Act also provides for 'Wilderness Areas', 'Recreation Areas', and Forest Sanctuaries. The principal Act defines the function of the Forest Service as follows:
"(The New Zealand Forest Service) shall have exclusive control and management of -
All State forest land to ensure balanced use of such land having regard to the production of timber or other forest produce, the protection of the land and vegetation, water and soil management, the protection of indigenous flora and fauna, and recreational, educational, historical, cultural, scenic. aesthetic, amenity, and scientific purposes".
Thus areas set aside under the Forest Act are subject to a multiple use philosophy, whereas the primary function of the National Parks Act and the Reserves Act is protection. Many of New Zealand's major caves and karst areas occur in State forests and State forest parks (See Appendix I). However, the designation of areas for a particular function (e.g. forest sanctuary) implies a specific use of the area so designated.
By 1969 concerned cavers were publishing articles in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin relating to the behaviour of fellow cavers when visiting caves (Kermode, 1969). Appeals were made not to remove speleothems; not to disturb cave fauna, or subfossils; not to leave permanent route markers; not to defecate or urinate in caves; and not to leave spent carbide in caves.
In 1970 major concern was voiced by the New Zealand Speleological Society and Waitomo residents alike about stalactites being sold by the Tourist Hotel Corporation at Waitomo. These stalactites were being supplied by an unnamed farmer to the Corporation. It was stated that the stalactites were "from an old cave that nobody ever visits". The concern was that apart from the vandalism in acquiring them, what would happen when the cave ran out of stalactites?
It was anticipated that a demand would be created and other caves vandalised to meet the demand caused by the sales. Articles objecting to the sale of speleothems appeared in local newspapers, and appeals to stop the practice were made to government. After six weeks the stalactites were withdrawn from sale by the Tourist Hotel Corporation (Dimond, 1971).
A similar problem arose in Nelson, and as a result appeals were made to the Minister of Internal Affairs to pass legislation to prohibit the removal and/or sale of speleothems from caves on private property (no such legislation has ever been passed).
1970 saw the 21st Anniversary of the New Zealand Speleological Society. The founder of the Society made a long address touching on many aspects of caving and speleology including the conservation of caves. The following is extracted verbatim:
"...if we were sometimes unethical, it was in our treatment of speleothems. We weren't too bad, but we could have been better. It takes time to build up an accepted code of behaviour. You put a miscellaneous group of new chums into a cave, and its natural for them to rob souvenirs, and leave rubbish, and mark their names or initials on the walls. Its the more experienced cavers who develop a distaste for such vandalism, and its only as the proportion of experienced members increases that you can put a stop to it. I am happy to say that the Society today can achieve a much higher standard of behaviour than we could in the early days (Anon, 1970)".
The incoming President, Ian MacGregor, also addressed the Society regarding the future and said the following in relation to cave conservation:
"For present and future cavers one of the most vital problems to be faced is that of conservation of caves ... We may think of caves as ours, but we must start thinking of them as the property of future generations, a legacy from the past held by us only as a trust for the benefit of all ... Maybe we cannot stop exploitation such as the recent sale of speleothems or mining in areas containing outstanding caves. New legislation is required in the former case and use of existing legislation (strengthened if necessary) in the latter. Such caves as Puketiti Flower Cave and Helictite Hole should be preserved forever (MacGregor, 1970)".
He remarked about damage to speleothems and dumping of spent carbide, and quoted Yanks as a spoiled cave (Ruakuri Caves and Bush Scenic Reserve).
From as early as 1965 articles began appearing in national newspapers complaining that the Waitomo Glowworm Cave was badly managed by the Tourist Hotel Corporation; and that the cave was deteriorating due to overexploitation for profit with little, or no, finance being returned to the management of the cave (Anon, 1965a, 1965b and 1965c). Most of the criticism had its origins with members of the New Zealand Speleological Society, and Waitomo locals (Dimond, pers. comm.).
At this point in time the criticism was levelled at the shabby appearance of the general area around the cave, the facilities and the gross discolouration of the speleothems caused by lampenflora (photosynthetic plant growth associated with artificial lighting).
By l975 the situation was regarded as more serious and the New Zealand Speleological Society was concerned about ecological deterioration due to large numbers of visitors. Concern was voiced about micro-climatic balance; temperature and humidity; carbon dioxide levels; and silting; and how these would affect the glowworm population and other cave fauna. Concern was also raised about corrosion and discolouration of speleothems (Williams, l979).
A conservation study was prepared by Les Kermode (DSIR Geology Division, and NZSS) based on data collected by DSIR between 1969 and 1974 (Kermode, 1974a). Independently Prof. Paul Williams (Auckland University and NZSS) called for a full scientific investigation (Anon, 1974a). As a result of these actions the matter was raised in Parliament (Anon, 1974b). Because of the criticism levelled at the Corporation's management there was some suggestion that the Department of Lands and Survey should take over the tourist caves and associated scenic reserves.
Late in 1974 a scientific research programme was approved. In 1975 the Tourist Hotel Corporation provided finance, and the Waitomo Caves Research Programme and a Committee to service it were established. Studies were carried out relating to geochemistry, flooding and siltation, cave micro-climate, and glowworm ecology (Anon, 1982).
Following the results of these first in-depth studies of cave ecology in New Zealand, a caves manager was appointed. Further studies relating to air movements, climate, control of lampenflora, and artificial feeding of glowworms were initiated by the Tourist Hotel Corporation on the recommendation of the Waitomo Caves Research Committee.
These studies resulted in the Waitomo Caves Research Committee making a number of further recommendations regarding the management of the cave. These were implemented by the Tourist Hotel Corporation and a number of modifications were made to restore the ecological balance (Tourist Hotel Corporation, 1981). The outcome was better informed, and ecologically based management of the three Waitomo tourist caves. A summary of papers from the Waitomo Caves Research Programme was consequently published (Waitomo Caves Research Programme, 1982).
The Waitomo Reserves Committee had been established in 1971, and consisted of representatives from the Department of Lands and Survey, the Waitomo District Council, and DSIR. On the request of the Committee the New Zealand Speleological Society recommended selected caves of the Waitomo area to be set aside as reserves on the basis of their scientific, scenic, and recreational values. The Society identified several caves and reported back to the Committee (Gardiner, 1975).
The New Zealand Speleological Society prepared a lengthy report on the conservation of Waitomo Caves (Williams, 1975) also at the request of the Committee. A dossier of Waitomo Caves warranting conserving was also prepared and published in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin (Hobson, 1976). To date this has not been followed through, although a proposal to protect some of the high value caves with conservation covenants is currently underway.
Concurrent with these developments and, starting in the 1960s, a world wide awareness of the natural environment began to emerge. Conservation of natural resources and environmental protection were becoming a matter of concern to the lay-person and scientist alike. The 1970s saw the development of an environmental 'revolution', and 'conservation' almost became a household word. Government Departments and other statutory bodies, including the Tourist Hotel Corporation, also developed greater environmental awareness.
At this time the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society was the principal environmental society in New Zealand, but as a result of the proposed West Coast Beech Scheme (1973), which scheduled massive clearance of beech for pulping, the Beech Forest Action Committee was formed (later to be renamed the Native Forest Action Council). In 1976 a petition to Parliament founded on the Maruia Declaration (a declaration objecting to the proposed felling of beech forest in the Marula area) raised 314,160 signatures, until recently the largest petition in New Zealand's history (Morton et al, 1984). The Native Forest Action Council differed to the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society in that it was, and has remained, an activist group. The environmental 'revolution' was now firmly established in New Zealand.
The New Zealand Speleological Society like any other group includes a cross-section of ordinary people, and naturally, they too became influenced by the new environmental trends. Many members embraced the concept of whole ecological systems, and attention was focussed not only on caves, but on karst ecosystems, which included the natural forest cover, and the landscape above the caves. For the first time cavers were beginning to look at the broader issues affecting cave conservation. They were becoming concerned about the conservation of karst ecosystems, and the effects of milling and mining (Wilson, 1972).
A number of caves and karst areas on the West Coast of the South Island came under threat by proposed milling operations, and concerned cavers published articles in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin (Wilson, 1973 and Caffyn, 1975). One of these titled 'Not the Trees Above or the Caves Below' (Wilson, 1973) identified the threat by logging to karst ecosystems. As a result many New Zealand Speleological Society members joined the ranks of the environmentalists.
During this period some members of the Society also became aware of the threat to fauna in karst areas and caves. An article appeared in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin identifying the threat to cave fauna from proposed milling under the West Coast Beech Scheme (Townsend, 1973). The article recommended that reserves be set aside to protect cave fauna. The Society combined with the Royal Forest and Bird protection Society in making a submission to the Nature Conservation Council. This resulted in the 7km long Metro Cave system and 24ha of forest being set aside as a scenic reserve (Wilson, 1972).
However, not all the forest above the cave nor the catchment was protected (Townsend, 1973) (most of the catchment area of Metro Cave has now been acquired for scenic reserve purposes (Bell, pers. comm.)). Although the cave has tourist potential to date there has been no satisfactory management plan prepared for the cave. There is, however, an interim management plan that has received much criticism owing to some unnecessary restrictions placed on recreational cavers.
In 1974 a "Philosophy of Cave Conservation" was published in the New Zealand Speleological Bulletin, which outlined approaches to cave conservation, particularly in tourist caves (Kermode 1974b). It identified that, at that time, Fiordland (established l905) was the only national park in New Zealand to contain caves, and that was by accident rather than design. It is also of interest to note that the management plan for Fiordland National Park (Lands and Survey 1981) makes no mention of caves, or the karst environment in the park. Also that a number of the Mt Luxmore Caves are suffering from "damage caused by uncontrolled and unmanaged recreational use".
In 1976 Professor Paul Williams noted that:
"Numerous karst features of national park quality and requiring national park protection and management occur in the vicinity of the Abel Tasman National Park. These included the (then) deepest cave (Harwood's-Starlight system) and the largest springs (Waikoropupu) in New Zealand, and other landscape features such as Gorge Creek and subterranean wilderness areas beneath Takaka Hill" (Williams, 1976)
As a result of Professor William's recommendations, and supporting proposals by the Chief Ranger, the Harwood's Hole-Starlight Cave system, Gorge Creek, Iron Creek, and the Rameka Crown Land block were acquired and added to the Abel Tasman National Park between the years 1977 and 1979 (Rennison pers. comm.). As far as the author is aware this was the first deliberate inclusion of caves and karst in a national park. Waikoropupu was also acquired and declared a scenic reserve. (See Appendix I).
During 1976 an amendment was made to the Forest Act which made provision for the setting aside of ecological areas for the:
"... protection of the natural environment and native wildlife, and for scientific purposes generally".
Ecological areas are designated to form a representative system of forest ecosystems for New Zealand as:
"... benchmarks for measuring change; for preserving plants and animals. for understanding and explaining natural processes; for preserving plants and animals; and for maintaining their genetic diversity" (Bassett and Myers, l984)
A number of karst areas and caves are represented in ecological areas (See Appendix I).
Based on the recommendations of a scientific advisory committee, ecological areas are set aside by notice in the New Zealand Gazette. Protection is not absolute; but changes of status are subject to public advertising and submissions.
In 1977 three additional pieces of legislation indirectly significant to the protection of caves and karst features were passed by Parliament.
These were the Reserves Act 1977 (repealed the Reserves and Domains Act 1953), the Town and Country Planning Act 1977, and the Queen Elizabeth II National Trust Act 1977.
The new Scenic Reserves Act provides for:
- "...the preservation and management for the benefit and enjoyment
of the public areas of New Zealand possessing -
- Recreation use or potential, whether active or passive; or
- Wildlife; or
- Indigenous flora, or fauna; or
- Environmental and landscape amenity or interest; or
- Natural, scenic, historic, cultural, educational, community, or other special features or value:
- Ensuring as far as possible, the survival of all indigenous species of flora and fauna, both rare and common place, in their natural communities and habitats, and the preservation of representative samples of all classes of natural ecosystems and landscape which in the aggregate originally gave New Zealand its own recognisable character."
(significant changes to the 1953 Act are underlined.)
This new legislation is innovative as it provides for the protection of representative samples of natural ecosystems, rather than just scenery. Thus it provides wider scope for the protection of caves and karst ecosystems. The Reserves Act is subject to other acts such as the Mining Act 1971, and therefore protection is not absolute. However, change of status is subject to public advertising and submissions.
Since this legislation was enacted a limited number of areas have been set aside as scenic reserves with the specific objective of protecting caves and karst features. The act also provides for nature reserves and scientific reserves which have controls on public access and are considered to be of a higher status than scenic reserves, and in the case of scientific reserves allows for scientific manipulation for management purposes. Grand Canyon, a cave and karst area which is the habitat and roosting place of a colony of long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) is now reserved and under consideration for nature or scientific reserve classification (See Appendix I).
The Town and Country Planning Act also gives opportunity to protect caves and karst, under a system of district schemes in which areas can be designated for protection. An article in the New Zealand. Speleological Bulletin explained this provision and identified caves in Northland worthy of protection (Ringer, 1981). In consultation with the New Zealand Speleological Society the Waitomo District Council identified a number of caves in the Waitomo District to be protected under their district scheme, but unfortunately the proposal met with opposition from the respective landowners and was withdrawn.
The Queen Elizabeth II National Trust Act 1977 provides for open space covenants which are widely defined as:
"Any area of land or body of water that serves to preserve or to facilitate the preservation of any landscape of aesthetic, cultural, scenic, scientific, or social interest or value."
Such covenants can be entered into by the landowner to protect an area or feature leaving it in private ownership, but providing legislative protection. A number of caves, and karst areas have been protected in this manner since 1977 (see Appendix I).
The Reserves Act 1977 also makes provision for private protected land, and conservation covenants. Such areas also remain in private ownership but are protected under the Act. Puketiti Flower Cave is now protected in this manner (Wilde, 1981b) (see Appendix I).
In 1976 the National Parks Authority had requested the Department of Lands and Survey to assess the Punakaiki - Paparoa region for national park status. The Department presented its report in 1978 and was rather "equivocal" about its national park values (Molloy, 1982). However, the Native Forest Action Council published an extensive and well researched study strongly recommending national park status (N.F.A.C. 1979).
Salmon (1980) describes the area as follows:
"The whole Paparoa Region - Coastline, limestone plateau, forested syncline and mountain range commands attention as to the last opportunity (except perhaps for Stewart Island) to create a new national park or equivalent reserve embracing a complete cross-section of a region's landforms and biota.
Such a concept for the Paparoas would bring to the existing national park and reserve system several unique features not protected in any other place.
An extensive karst plateau. Apart from its distinctive scenery, karst gives rise to a unique biological environment, and this is the only unmodified lowland karst area left in New Zealand".
The Punakaiki - Paparoa karst is the only large area of lowland polygonal karst in New Zealand with an undisturbed forest cover, and therefore intact hydrological and biological systems. The diverse and often spectacular karst features, including numerous significant caves and limestone gorges are unique and of national significance warranting special protective status (Cody et al, 1982) (see Appendix I).
In 1981 the New Zealand Forest Service produced the Buller Regional Draft Management Plan (N.Z.F.S., 1981). The plan proposed extensive logging of the Paparoa area and resulted in strong objections from environmentalists. The New Zealand Speleological Society presented a substantial submission to the New Zealand Forest Service calling for national park or national reserve status for the area (Cody et al, 1982). The 'battle' for the Paparoas is still continuing and is now receiving strong support from the Department of Lands and Survey (Lands and Survey, 1982), and the National Park Authority which recently recommended to government that the area be declared a national park.
A major turning point for the Paparoa proposal, and a significant development for the protection of large areas of national ecological significance came with the enactment of the National Park Act 1980 which repealed the 1952 Act. Like the 1977 Reserves Act the new National Parks Act is innovative as it refers to more than scenery of distinctive character, and beautiful and unique areas It provides for:
The preservation of national parks in perpetuity for "...their intrinsic worth and for the benefit. use, and enjoyment of the public, areas of New Zealand that contain scenery of such distinctive quality, ecological systems, or natural features so beautiful or unique, or scientifically important that their preservation is in the national interest."
(significant changes to the 1952 Act are underlined).
Thus the legislation allows wider scope and justifies the acquisition of karst and cave areas for national park purposes. In fact, if the Paparoa-Punakaiki proposal proceeds it will be New Zealand's first national park set aside with a primary objective of protecting a karst ecosystem. As with the Reserves Act protection of national parks is not absolute. But, change of status is subject to public submissions, and Act of Parliament.
During 1978 Canterbury Caving Group (NZSS) identified a number of South Island caves worthy of protection (Emberson, 1978). These included caves threatened by possible mining, which were within the boundaries of the proposed Paparoa-Punakaiki National Park. Several caves north of Auckland were also identified (Crossley, 1978), these included Abbey Caves (former tourist caves) which were also threatened by mining. Because of the New Zealand Speleological Society's, and individual caver's efforts, the Northland caves are now designated as reserve under the areas district scheme.
Recently (1983-85) the Wiri Lava Caves near Auckland have come under threat. This lava cave is on Crown land administered by the Railways Corporation, and the area above (including the cave) is to be quarried. Wiri Lava Cave is considered to be the best example of its type (Crossley pers. comm.) and the New Zealand Speleological Society opposes quarrying the cave.
In 1979, concentrated exploration commenced in Nettlebed Cave (originally discovered in 1969) located near the Pearse River on the foothills of Mount Arthur (Northwest Nelson State Forest Park). Several expeditions proved this cave to be of world class in terms of depth (685m) and length (22km). During the 1979-80 expedition a precedent was set that has been maintained. All passages with vulnerable speleothems were taped off, and routes marked with tape to confine 'traffic' to narrow tracks (Kahl, 1980). Because of this action many parts of the cave have survived in an almost pristine condition. The Mount Arthur and Mount Owen marble alpine karst lands are reported to support high numbers of lime preferring flora, and warrant further research, and possible designation as State Forest Ecological Areas.
During this period the Nelson Speleological Group (NZSS) liaised regularly with the New Zealand Forest Service, Nelson regarding exploration and protection of Nettlebed Cave and as a consequence a close working relationship developed.
The contact between the Nelson Speleological Group and the New Zealand Forest Service created amongst the staff of the New Zealand Forest Service an awareness of the unique and sensitive nature of caves, and provided them with the appropriate background to manage caves and karst under their administration.
In 1980, the Buller Caving Group (BCG) discovered another major cave in the Northwest Nelson State Forest Park near Karamea. The cave is now known as Honeycomb Hill and is located near Oparara. The Oparara area has featured as a conservation 'battle' (Lusk, 1983) in recent years as the New Zealand Forest Service Buller Regional Draft Management Plan (1981) proposed that the area be logged and converted to pines. The New Zealand Speleological Society, and the Buller Caving Group, objected strongly to this proposal and recommended a reserve to protect the caves, karst, and forests of the Oparara which includes three spectacular arches (Cody et al, 1982).
Apart from supporting New Zealand's most extensive and significant assemblage of subfossil avifauna (Millner, 1984). Honeycomb Hill is a cave of impressive proportions; being in the order of 13-14km in length with no fewer than 70 entrances. An inspection carried out by six New Zealand Speleological Society Council members, late in 1983, identified the cave and associated karst of the Oparara area as being of national significance. A submission was forwarded to the Conservator of Forests, Nelson calling for the area not to be logged, but to be declared an ecological reserve. The submission also recommended biological, botanical, hydrological and geological surveys. and suggested various options for management of the caves (Wilde, 1983). The Buller Caving Group have maintained a close liaison with the New Zealand Forest Service regarding caves on the West Coast of the South Island (see Appendix I for karst and caves in the Northwest Nelson State Forest Park).
Early in 1984, the author was requested by the New Zealand Forest Service, Nelson to inspect the cave and associated karst areas and prepare a report recommending options for conservation, development, and management based on suggestions made by Millner (Wilde, 1984). These recommendations have been accepted and form the basis of the management plan for the caves and associated karst (Rautjoki and Millar, this volume).
As a result of the efforts of recreational cavers, scientists, conservationists, rangers, and the increased awareness of the New Zealand Forest Service the Honeycomb Hill Cave system and associated karst features are now recognised as being of national importance; and much of the area, including the caves, are included in the adjacent Kohaihai Ecological Reserve (Rautjoki and Millar, this volume) (see Appendix I).
The karst, caves, and recreational caving values of the Northwest Nelson State Forest Park have been described by Millar and Rautjoki (1984). The register produced by them, on behalf of the New Zealand Forest Service, is the first of its kind to be compiled for karst and caves in a New Zealand protected natural area.
In 1981, the author completed a study of the New Zealand karst and cave resource, 'Caves - the Cave and Karst Resource of New Zealand' (Wilde, 1981a). This outlined the historic background of cave exploration in New Zealand; the biological and physical characteristics; the conservation and preservation; and the management of the resource. The main rationale for the study was to create greater awareness of caves and karst amongst the various land administering agencies, and to provide them with sufficient background knowledge to manage the resource.
The study identifies a number of karst areas and caves worthy of protective status, and makes recommendations relating to protection and management at the national level. The study has been made available to government agencies administering caves and karst areas and has formed the basis of the Department of Lands and Survey and New Zealand Forest Service's approach to cave and karst management, Appendix I of this paper provides an annotated list of karst areas and caves in national parks, reserves, State forest parks, and 'ecological areas'. Other unprotected areas in State Forests are also included. The list of protected karst areas and caves appears impressive, but many karst areas and caves of national importance remain unprotected. As no agency in New Zealand has, to date, compiled a national inventory of our karst and cave resource; it is not possible to establish to what extent the protected natural areas are representative.
In 1983, the New Zealand Geological Society and New Zealand Geological Survey, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, developed a proposal to avoid ad hoc setting aside of geological and geomorphological features as reserves with the intention of establishing a representative system of protected natural physical features. They have since set up a working group to compile "An Inventory and Assessment of New Zealand Geological and Geomorphological Features of National and Regional Importance" (DSIR, l983). When this is completed it will be possible to attempt to establish a representative system of protected karst and cave areas in New Zealand based on physical parameters.
During 1984 a register of protected natural areas was established under the aegis of the New Zealand Committee of the International Union of Conservation and Natural Resources (IUCN) (Lands and Survey, 1984). The register is a part of the New Zealand Protected Natural Areas Programme, a system which divides the country into Ecological Regions and Districts and seeks to carry out the following broad objective:
"... the identification and survey district by district, of New Zealand's remaining native vegetation, wildlife. and natural landscapes."
The surveys and consequent data will be used to plan a fully representative reserve system in New Zealand. This should include karst landscapes and caves. However, in the opinion of the author the government agencies involved (Lands and Survey. New Zealand Forest Service, Wildlife Service and DSIR) do not as yet have sufficient physical and biological data relating to the karst and cave resource.
Before it is possible to establish an ecologically representative system of karst types, karst features, karst ecosystems, and caves within the Protected National Area system it will be necessary to establish and quantify the physical, and biological (vegetation, flora, and wildlife) values of our karst and cave resources. In order to achieve this it will firstly be necessary to compile and collate all available relevant data.
A number of efforts to establish a karst and cave index system (database) have been made over the years. Notably Kermode (1970), and Wilde (l981). Currently a database system is being developed for caves on the west coast of the South Island (Buller Caving Group, NZSS) (Wood, pers. comm.). Whilst this is commendable, in order to achieve national consistency and international compatibility, any karst database should be a coordinated national system approved by the New Zealand Speleological Society and preferably in consultation with the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service.
The New Zealand Speleological Society recognises the need for coordinated and retrievable resource data in respect of caves and karst, and recently gave its support to establishing a national karst database at the Waitomo Caves Museum (Fraser, this volume). The system will be entirely based on the Australian Karst Index System which conforms to an international karst database which is currently under preparation (Mathews, 1983). Such a database would provide the Protected Natural Area Programme, and the Inventory and Assessment of New Zealand Geological and Geomorphological Features of National and Regional Importance with sufficient data to attempt to establish a system of representative protected natural areas containing caves and karst. An application was recently made to the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service to assist with finance for this project and has been approved.
As previously discussed recreational cavers have, over the years, noticed a marked deterioration in many of New Zealand's caves, and have expressed concern about their worsening condition. Because caves and speleothems form within a geological time-frame, damage in human terms is permanent. Therefore in a practical sense caves have zero carrying capacity (Wood, this volume).
Many caves in the Waitomo region, the most intensively used recreational caving area in New Zealand, have suffered considerable damage whilst caves in more remote areas show less damage. Caves and passages which are less accessible tend to have suffered less, and those that require little in the way of caving skills have tended to deteriorate more easily. Whilst this is obvious to experienced recreational cavers, it has been less obvious to inexperienced cavers, 'fringe cavers', and those in government departments who administer lands supporting caves. Even less obvious, is damage to entrance (twilight) flora, and the effect on cave fauna.
The New Zealand Speleological Society has some 350 members, and 130 of whom are members of the Hamilton Tomo Group, who primarily cave in the Waitomo area. The membership of the New Zealand Speleological Society, and its major groups and clubs, has remained fairly static over the last two decades (Wilde, 1981a). However, whilst there is no definitive data the number of 'fringe cavers' appears to have markedly increased.
School and scouting groups, tramping clubs, church and youth groups, outdoor pursuit organisations, adventure caving operations, individuals with no affiliations, Lands and Survey and New Zealand Forest Service summer programmes, and increasingly more requests for recreational cavers to guide people through caves are inevitably placing more and more demands and stress on our caves and karst areas.
The New Zealand Speleological Society has shared its concern with the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service as both of these agencies administer a number of significant caves and karst areas (see Appendix I). As a result the Department of Lands and Survey, the New Zealand Forest Service, and the New Zealand Speleological Society have become more concerned about the environmental impacts the increased use is having on our caves, and now recognise the need for some wise user controls and management.
The New Zealand Speleological Society continues to be concerned about the number of significant cave systems and karst areas in protected natural areas and state administered Crown Lands threatened by overuse, vandalism, land development, and extractive industries such as logging and mining. The New Zealand Speleological Society is concerned about the caves and karst areas on private property being equally threatened.
As a result of these concerns three policies of major significance have recently been developed by the New Zealand Speleological Society: A Basis for New Zealand Cave and Karst Management (Wilde et al, 1983); the New Zealand Speleological Society's Policy for Cave and Karst Conservation (Wilde, 1985a); and the Society's Ethical Guidelines (Wilde, 1985b).
A proposal for a New Zealand classification system for cave management was devised by Les Kermode (DSIR) (Kermode, 1979). His reasons for management were two fold:
"The protection of caves from people and their activities", and "The protection of cave visitors from cave hazards."
The author and the New Zealand Speleological Society do not agree with any system that regulates the activity of recreational cavers, other than to protect caves; this may or may not, include gating (in extreme circumstances) and access by permit (where some control is considered necessary by the Society). Also Kermode's system failed to take account of the sensitive ecological nature of some surface karst environments.
These factors aside the paper is notable in that it was the first in New Zealand to recognise the need for the classification and management of caves for the purpose of environmental protection.
The first of these the New Zealand Speleological Society's policy for cave and karst management is largely based on a simplification of the policy proposed by Worboys (1976) for the New South Wales National Park and Wildlife Service. The main difference being that the New Zealand system does not place controls on the activity of cavers other than to protect the resource, and calls for management policies and classification of caves to be carried out in consultation with the Society.
A part of the New Zealand Speleological Society's rationale for developing the management policy was to provide a consistent national approach to management, and to ensure that the Society and its member groups and clubs have an input to management planning in respect of caves and karst areas administered by government agencies.
Such a policy is wise as it is well known that strategies for protecting recreational and environmental resources function more effectively if the users have a continued input into policy making. Indeed, a relatively large number of caves (as previously discussed) have been protected at the request of the New Zealand Speleological Society. Also many of the controls placed on caves, particularly in the Waitomo Region, have been instigated at the request of the Society.
The New Zealand Speleological Society's policy for cave and karst management has been informally adopted by the Department of Lands and Survey in the Waitomo reserves management plan (Lands and Survey, 1984b). The Tourist Hotel Corporation at Waitomo has adopted the policy informally at the local level in respect of wild caves administered by the Corporation and is under consideration for formal adoption under the impending management plan review. To date, Fiordland Travel Ltd have not been asked to adopt the policy.
At the instigation of the New Zealand Speleological Society, the Department of Lands and Survey, and the New Zealand Forest Service have prepared a joint Caves and Karst Management Policy based upon the Society's original policy (Lands, and NZFS, this volume). The policy provides for classification and control of caves and karst areas based on the degree of protection required to maintain the integrity of the resource. The policy also states that the Society should be consulted regarding classification and management options represent the major user group. The 'next' priority is to develop operational guidelines for the policy.
The remaining two policies represent a significant development in the New Zealand Speleological Society's commitment to protecting and conserving New Zealand's cave and karst resource. The Policy for Cave and Karst Conservation (see Appendix II) is a general statement of the Society's beliefs and commitment to conserving the unique nature of the resource and its scientific and recreational values; and the Ethical Guidelines is a recommended, and self imposed, code of behaviour for speleologists and recreational cavers (see Appendix III).
It is hoped that groups not affiliated to the New Zealand Speleological Society will also adopt the Ethical Guidelines, particularly Scout and school groups, adventure caving enterprises, and outdoor pursuit groups.
The acceptance of national policies for cave and karst management conservation, preservation, and utilisation; and ethical guidelines; for recreational cave users will greatly enhance the protection and development of the resource. All agencies, whether government, commercial or private, should be encouraged to adopt these policies on a national basis.
- New Zealand's karst and cave resource is:
- A physical, biological, scientific, educational, recreational, and scenic resource of national significance;
- A resource of national socio-economic importance; and
- A finite resource, that can often be threatened by clearance for development, and by extractive industries such as logging and mining.
- There are a number of nationally and regionally important karst
areas and cave systems which remain unprotected, these include;
- The undisturbed lowland karst ecosystem of the Paparoa-Punakaiki region which is unique and of national significance, and warrants national park status, and:
- The undisturbed sub-alpine karst fields of the Northwest Nelson State Forest Park and the Owen State Forest (See Appendix I) which are also unique and warrant high protective status and;
- Wiri Lave Cave which is considered to be the best example of its type should be considered for some form of formalised protective status.
- There is a need for a national policy for the conservation and preservation, management, recreational, commercial (tourist) use and economic development and utilisation (industrial use) of New Zealand's karst and cave resources. Such a policy should be prepared by the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service, in consultation with the Mines Division, DSIR, and the various agencies administering tourist caves in protected natural areas and adopted by all agencies administering the karst and cave resource.
- The joint Cave and Karst Management Policy prepared by the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service provides a sound basis for the management of karst and caves in protected natural areas.
- There is a need to prepare operational guidelines in respect of the joint Cave and Karst Management Policy.
- Existing New Zealand legislation gives adequate provision for the protection of karst and cave ecosystems within natural areas (i.e. National Parks, reserves, State Forest Parks, ecological areas, conservation covenants, private protected land, and the Town and Country Planning Act). However:
- Agencies administering protected natural areas and other public lands should recognise the need for a representative system of protected natural areas with the specific purpose of protecting cave and karst ecosystems.
- In order to establish such a representative protected natural area system it will first be necessary to compile an inventory of scientific and recreational data relating to the karst and cave resource.
- The New Zealand Speleological Society recognises the need to establish a national karst data base to facilitate the development of a representative karst and cave protected natural area system, and to provide data for classifying caves for the purpose of management.
- Many New Zealand karst areas and cave systems have been given protective status as a direct result of recommendations made by the New Zealand Speleological Society, but on an ad hoc basis.
- Resulting from concerns expressed by the New Zealand Speleological Society the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service have become aware of environmental impacts upon karst areas and caves.
- The New Zealand Speleological Society plays an active and important role in creating awareness of the conservation, preservation, management and use of New Zealand's karst and cave resource. The Society believes that the responsibility for conserving and protecting the New Zealand cave and karst resource should not be the sole responsibility of government and other managing agencies. In recognition of this belief it has developed a Policy for Cave and Karst Conservation, and Ethical Guidelines for its members, and other recreational users of the resource.
- The New Zealand Speleological Society has considerable knowledge and expertise relating to the scientific and recreational values of New Zealand caves and karst areas; and as such is able to advise government and other agencies regarding management of the resource.
- Accordingly, continuing consultation between government agencies who administer New Zealand's major karst and cave areas and the New Zealand Speleological Society is necessary to establish and to maintain wise management of the resource.
- The ecological integrity of the Glowworm Cave, Waitomo was jeopardised in the 1970s by the Tourist Hotel Corporation's poor management. As a result of research and new management practices the cave is now managed in a more ecologically sound manner.
- A management plan is required in respect of the Metro Cave, Nile River Caves Scenic Reserve.
- The physical and biological values of the karst and caves within the Fiordland National Park need to be assessed and management policies prepared and included in the national park management plan.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest
Service formally recognise that the New Zealand cave and karst resource
- A physical, biological, scientific, education, recreational, scenic resource of national significance;
- A resource of national socio-economic importance, and
- A finite resource, and that:
- The New Zealand cave and karst resource can often be threatened by clearance for development, and by extractive industries such as logging and mining.
- That the Paparoa-Punakaiki national park proposal be approved by government and a national park established;and:
- That the sub-alpine marble karstfields of the Northwest Nelson State Forest Park, and the Owen State Forest be investigated with a view to the setting aside of adequate and representative ecological areas; and:
- That Wiri Lava Cave, Auckland be given some form of protective status.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service prepare a joint national policy for the conservation and preservation management, commercial use, and economic development and utilisation of New Zealand's karst and cave resource; and that a recommendation be made to all agencies administering the resource to adopt the policy on a national basis.
- That the New Zealand Speleological Society continue to make recommendations to government agencies to protect caves and karst areas where they believe appropriate.
- No changes to existing legislation are recommended. However, it may be appropriate to legislate against the sale of speleothems and cave minerals.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey, the New Zealand Forest Service, and the New Zealand Speleological Society formally recognise the need for and instigate a system of representative protected natural areas for the conservation and preservation of New Zealand's cave and karst resource; and wherever possible such areas should include whole karst ecosystems, and/or complete hydrological systems.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey, the New Zealand Forest Service, the DSIR Geology Division, and the New Zealand Speleological Society compile an inventory of scientific and recreational data relating to the cave and karst resource; and facilitate:
- The establishment of a computerised national karst database at the Waitomo Caves Museum.
- That the New Zealand Speleological Society adopt the joint Department of Lands and Survey and New Zealand Forest Service Cave and Karst Management Policy.
- That the Tourist Hotel Corporation and Fiordland Travel Ltd, be requested to adopt the joint Cave and Karst Management Policy in respect of caves and karst administered by them in protected natural areas (i.e. Waitomo and Fiordland National Park).
- That the Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service prepare operational guidelines for the implementation of the joint Cave and Karst Management Policy.
- That the New Zealand Speleological Society continue to play an active role in creating awareness of the conservation, preservation, management and use of New Zealand's cave and karst resource; and continue to consult with government agencies (i.e. Department of Lands and Survey and the New Zealand Forest Service) who administer New Zealand's cave and karst resources.
- That the Tourist Hotel Corporation continue to manage the tourist caves within scenic reserves currently administered by them.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey prepare a management plan in respect of Metro Cave, Nile River Caves Scenic Reserve.
- That the Department of Lands and Survey assess the biological and physical values of the karst and caves of the Fiordland National Park and prepare management policies to be included in the national park management plan.
Anon (1952) How We Began, NZ Speleological Bulletin 1, pp 1-3
Anon (1955a) Removal of Cave Formations, NZ Speleological Bulletin 14, p 1
Anon (1955b) Smoking Initials and Leaving Rubbish, NZ Speleological Bulletin 16, pp 6-9
Anon (1956) The Pros and Cons of Forming Small Speleological Groups, NZ Speleological Bulletin l8, p 5
Anon (1957) Notices - Rubbish in Caves, NZ Speleological Bulletin 24, p 5
Anon (1957) He Found Lost Cave of Te Ana-au, Auckland Star, 30.7.61
Anon (1972) Sacred Cave Now Safe For All Time, The Times, 12.9.72
Anon (1965a) Waitomo Caves 'Scruffy', Daily News, 21.9.65
Anon (1965b) Waitomo Caves 'Scrappy Lot', The Times, 29.9.65
Anon (1965c) Caves Need Clean Up', Waikato Times, 22.9.65
Anon (1970) Special Souvenir Bulletin, NZ Speleological Society : p 29
Anon (1974a) The Need at Waitomo - Considered Plan of Management, King Country Chronicle. 26.7.74
Anon (1974b) Questions in the House, New Zealand Herald, 25.7.74
Anon (1982) Waitomo Day 1982 - Summary of Papers, Waitomo Caves Research Programme
Bassett C and Miers K H, (1984) Scientific Reserves in State Forests, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 14(1) pp 29-35
Caffyn, P (1975) The West Coast Beech Forest Scheme, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(94) 419-420
Campbell, T M (1964) Vandalism, NZ Speleological Bulletin 47, pp 97-98
Cody, A et al, (1982) Submission to the New Zealand Forest Service in Relation to the Buller Management Plan (Draft), New Zealand Speleological Society
Crossley, P (1978) Caves North of Auckland Worthy of Protection, NZ Speleological Bulletin 6(105), p 120
Dimond, P (1971) Stalactite Sales at Waitomo, NZ Speleological Bulletin 79(4) : pp 568-569
DSIR (1983) An Inventory of New Zealand Geological and Geomorphological Features of National and Regional Importance, DSIR
Emberson, R (1978) Caves in the Central South Island Worthy of Protection, NZ Speleological Bulletin 6(105) pp 97-98
Gardiner, D I (1975) Waitomo Reserves, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(95) : pp 469-471
Hobson, D (1976) The Waitomo Caves Dossier, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(100) : pp 585-620
Kahl, F (1980) Organisation and Expenditure of the 1979-80 Nettlebed Expedition, NZ Speleological Bulletin 6(113) : p 290
Kermode, L O (1966) Speleology in New Zealand, NZ Speleological Bulletin 3(60) : pp 489-536
Kermode, L O (1969) Cave Visitors, NZ Speleological Bulletin 4(69): pp 240-243
Kermode, L O (1970) Cave Index Cards, NZ Speleological Bulletin 4(74) : pp 408-411
Kermode, L O (1974a) Glowworm, Waitomo Conservation, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(91) : pp 329-344
Kermode, L O (1974b) A Philosophy of Cave Conservation, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(92) : pp 350-344
Kermode, L O (1979) Assessment of New Zealand Tourist Caves, Cave Management in Australia, Proc III Conf Cave Tourism and Management
Lands and Survey (1978) The Punakaiki-Paparoa Region - An Investigation for the National Parks Authority Department of Lands & Survey, Wellington
Lands and Survey (1981) Fiordland National Park Management Plan, Department of Lands & Survey Wellington
Lands and Survey (1982) Punakaiki National Park Investigation, Department of Lands & Survey, Wellington
Lands and Survey (1984a) Register of Protected Natural Areas in New Zealand, Department of Lands & Survey Wellington
Lands and Survey (1984b) Scenic Reserves of the Waitomo Area Management Plan, Department of Lands & Survey, Hamilton
Lusk, P 1983, The Scenic Splendour of the Oparara, Forest and Bird 14(230) : pp 2-6
MacGregor, I (1970) Special Souvenir Bulletin, NZ Speleological Society : pp 39-40
Molloy, L (1982) Will Punakaiki Become the Eleventh National Park?, Forest and Bird l4(4) : pp 15-19
Mathews P G (1983) Australian Karst Index Data Preparation Manual, Australian Speleological Federation
Millar, I R and Rautjoki, H A (1984) Karst, Caves and Caving Northwest, Nelson New Zealand Forest Service, Nelson
Millner, P R (1964) Honeycomb Hill Cave - A Survey of Scientific and Scenic Resources, National Museum of New Zealand, Wellington
Morton, J et al (1984) To Save a Forest - Whirinaki, Whirinaki Promotion Trust, 1984
Native Forest Action Council (1979), A Proposal for a Paparoa National Park, Native Forest Action Council, Nelson
New Zealand Forest Service (1981), Buller Regional Management Plan (Draft), New Zealand Forest Service, Wellington
Ringer, M (1981) Your Part in Conservation : Town and Country Planning Act 1977, NZ Speleological Bulletin 6(117) Pp 385-389
Salmon, G (1980) The Paparoa Range - A future National Park, Forest and Bird 13(7) : pp 13-14
Tourist Hotel (1981), Waitomo Caves Management Plan, Tourist Hotel Corporation
Townsend, I (1973), Metro Cave - Threatened by Forestry Proposals, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(87) : pp 230-233
Waitomo Caves Research Programme (1982) Waitomo Day 1982 - Summary of Papers, Proceedings of Waitomo Caves Research Programme Seminar, 1982
Worboys, G (1976) A Basis for Cave Management, National Parks & Wildlife Service, New South Wales, Australia
Wilde, K A (1981a) Caves - The Cave and Karst Resource of New Zealand, Unpublished Dissertation, Dip. Parks and Recreation, Lincoln College
Wilde, K A (1981b) Puketiti Flower Cave - Proposed Conservation Covenant, Department of Lands & Survey, Hamilton File 13/366
Wilde, K A; Cody, A; Worthy, T (1983) A Basis for New Zealand Cave and Karst Management, NZ Speleological Bulletin 7(124) pp94-98
Wilde, K A (1984) Honeycomb Hill Cave System - Recommendations for Management, New Zealand Forest Service
Wilde, K A (1985a) Policy for Karst and Cave Conservation, New Zealand Speleological Society in "The Little Red Caves Book" NZSS Information Manual pp 5-6
Wilde, K A (1985b) Ethical Guidelines, New Zealand Speleological Society in "The Little Red Cavers Book" - NZSS information Manual pp 6-8
Williams, P W et al (1975) Report on the Conservation of Waitomo Caves, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(93) : pp3.74-39
Williams, P W (1976) Karst Landscapes Near the Abel Tasman National Park, Seminar on Science in National Parks, 1976, National Parks Authority, Wellington, NZ pp 284-300
Williams, P W (1979) Tourism and Conservation at Waitomo Caves, Cave Management in Australia Proc III Conf Cave Tourism and Management, 1979
Wilson, G (1972) Conservation of Karst in New Zealand, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(84) pp 101-104
Wilson, G (1972) Not the Trees Above or the Caves Below, NZ Speleological Bulletin 5(85) : pp 164-167
New Zealand Forest Service
D A Field
H A Rautjoki
B N Watson
M I Turbitt
Department of Lands & Survey
W E Sander
I B Mitchell
C S Christie
New Zealand Speleological Society
Botanical (Appendix I)
P de Lange
Scenery Preservation Act 1908
Public Reserves, Domains and National Park Act 1928
Forest Act 1949 (and 1965, 1976 amendments)
National Parks Act 1952
Reserves and Domains Act 1953
Mining Act 1971
Reserves Act 1977
Town and Country Planning Act 1977
Queen Elizabeth II Trust Act 1977
National Parks Act 1980